New Paper: Will shells survive an age of climate change?

Many marine animals build their shells and skeletons out of calcium carbonate. When ocean water becomes more acidic–as happens when the climate warms–calcium carbonate should be harder to extract. This has many scientists worries about the fate of corals, molluscs, and other important marine life. Indeed, many studies have shown that certain species have trouble building their shells when their water is more acidic, but many other studies do not. What could explain this variation?

Dr. Gold explores this question with Geerat Vermeij in a new paper, “Deep resilience: An evolutionary perspective on calcification in an age of ocean acidification.” It is available for free at Frontiers in Physiology. DOI link: